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El Niño and the shifting geography of cholera in Africa

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climate patterns can have profound impacts on the occurrence of infectious diseases ranging from dengue to cholera. In Africa, El Niño conditions are associated with increased rainfall in East Africa and decreased rainfall in southern Africa, West Africa, and parts of the Sahel.

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California end-use electrification impacts on carbon neutrality and clean air

Widespread electrification, i.e., switching direct fossil fuel end-uses to electricity, coupled with renewable power use is essential to achieve aggressive greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emission reduction targets. Few have investigated the requisite electric grid infrastructure transformation and technology path coupled with spatial and temporal resolution of criteria pollutant emissions for assessing air quality impacts.

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Increasing probability of mortality during Indian heat waves

Rising global temperatures are causing increases in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events, such as floods, droughts, and heat waves. We analyze changes in summer temperatures, the frequency, severity, and duration of heat waves, and heat-related mortality in India between 1960 and 2009 using data from the India Meteorological Department.

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The role of natural gas and its infrastructure in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, improving regional air quality, and renewable resource integration

The pursuit of future energy systems that can meet electricity demands while supporting the attainment of societal environment goals, including mitigating climate change and reducing pollution in the air, has led to questions regarding the viability of continued use of natural gas. Natural gas use, particularly for electricity generation, has increased in recent years due to enhanced resource availability from non-traditional reserves and pressure to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) from higher-emitting sources, including coal generation.

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Geophysical constraints on the reliability of solar and wind power in the United States

We analyze 36 years of global, hourly weather data (1980–2015) to quantify the covariability of solar and wind resources as a function of time and location, over multi-decadal time scales and up to continental length scales. Assuming minimal excess generation, lossless transmission, and no other generation sources, the analysis indicates that wind-heavy or solar-heavy U.S.-scale power generation portfolios could in principle provide ∼80% of recent total annual U.S. electricity demand.

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Quantifying the economic risks of climate change

Understanding the value of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions matters for policy decisions and climate risk management, but quantification is challenging because of the complex interactions and uncertainties in the Earth and human systems, as well as normative ethical considerations.

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Net-zero emissions energy systems

Some energy services and industrial processes—such as long-distance freight transport, air travel, highly reliable electricity, and steel and cement manufacturing—are particularly difficult to provide without adding carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Rapidly growing demand for these services, combined with long lead times for technology development and long lifetimes of energy infrastructure, make decarbonization of these services both essential and urgent.

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Probabilistic estimates of drought impacts on agricultural production: Drought Impacts on Agriculture

Increases in the severity and frequency of drought in a warming climate may negatively impact agricultural production and food security. Unlike previous studies that have estimated agricultural impacts of climate condition using single‐crop yield distributions, we develop a multivariate probabilistic model that uses projected climatic conditions (e.g., precipitation amount or soil moisture) throughout a growing season to estimate the probability distribution of crop yields.

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Planning for Idaho’s waterscapes: A review of historical drivers and outlook for the next 50 years

Water availability and use are increasingly critical factors determining the resilience and vulnerability of communities in the Western United States (US). Historical water availability and use in the state of Idaho is synthesized by considering the biophysical drivers of climate and surface runoff alongside human drivers of land-use, hydrologic engineering and state water management and policies.

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Interannual county-level climate-yield relationships for winter wheat on the Columbia Plateau, USA

Climate–yield relationships for winter wheat were examined across primarily dryland agricultural systems for counties in the Columbia Plateau of the northwestern USA from 1980 to 2014. Interannual linear climate–yield relationships were assessed at subregional scales with climate variables of energy and moisture using temperature, precipitation, heat stress, and water balance metrics for varying wheat phenostages.

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The Perception of Graph Properties in Graph Layouts

When looking at drawings of graphs, questions about graph density, community structures, local clustering and other graph properties may be of critical importance for analysis. While graph layout algorithms have focused on minimizing edge crossing, symmetry, and other such layout properties, there is not much known about how these algorithms relate to a user’s ability to perceive graph properties for a given graph layout.

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